The SSH (Secure SHell) protocol is what almost every UNIX and UNIX-like operating systems use for remotely logging into a machine as if it were a local shell.
If you manually installed Ubuntu Server, you were asked to install OpenSSH server. But that is not the case with most installations. So let us go over how you can install OpenSSH packages manually.
There are two main packages one needs to look for, to enable SSH on Ubuntu. They are as follows:
openssh-server: The server part of OpenSSH allows you to connect from other systems, using proper authentication, to your system (usually suitable for the servers).
openssh-client: The client part allows you to SSH into a remote server from your current system (usually suitable for the desktops).
Based on your needs, you may install either package, or both packages.
On my Ubuntu server, which I need to access remotely, I will run the following command:
sudo apt-get install openssh-server
This will install OpenSSH Server on my computer.
Once the installation is complete, I will enable the
ssh systemd service using the command given down below:
sudo systemctl enable --now ssh.service
sshd.service, but the
openssh-serverpackage on Ubuntu provides
ssh.service, so better use that. Meanwhile, on Fedora, it is
This command will not only enable the
ssh systemd service, but it will also start it immediately.
Open network port (if necessary)
sudo ufw allow ssh
Done! Following these steps will enable you to access your Ubuntu computer remotely, over the network.
Installing openssh-client (on desktop)
There isn't much to do on the client side. Usually, Ubuntu installs the
openssh-client package by default.
If, for some reason, it wasn't installed, run the following command:
sudo apt-get install openssh-client
This package provides several packages:
scp: secure copy (cp over network)
sftp: secure FTP
ssh: the ssh client, used to log into remote computers
ssh-keygen: create SSH keys
Now that we have
ssh command available, the syntax to log into a remote computer is as follows:
ssh [USERNAME]@[IP ADDRESS]
As evident, you need to provide the username of the user that you wish to log in as. You can also replace the IP address with the hostname of the remote computer.
For example, my remote computer has the user
pratham and the hostname is
learnubuntu.com.I will use the following command to log into my remote machine:
In case I wish to log in using an IP address, I will do the following:
With this, I will be asked for a password. This password is the login password of user
Use a different port
Some servers, to prevent attacks will change the port used for SSH. The default port is 22.
No worries, this can be easily taken care of (if you know which port to use) using the
Specify the port number after like so:
ssh -p [PORT] [USERNAME]@[IP ADDRESS]
Say I changed the SSH port on my remote computer from 22 to 108, I will log in like so:
ssh -p 108 [email protected]
In case you have problems logging into your remote computer, make sure that the username and IP address are correct. Typos happen :)
If you have the correct credentials and want to see what is causing a connection error, use the
There are 3 levels of verbosity, each level can be indicated by the number of occurrences of
If I want maximum verbosity (level 3), use the option
-v in the following manner:
ssh -vvv [email protected]
That is all there is to enable SSH on Ubuntu :)
Need help or suggestions? Feel free to leave a comment below.